Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal <p><em>Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal With its reviews on late advancement in the zone of Food Science and Technology and Engineering, educated perspectives on industry-related issues, and wide inclusion of market improvements, Food and Agriculture Spectrum has built up a huge readership base. The spectrum of incorporate Food technologists, engineers, researchers, supervisors, specialists, strategy producers, and undergraduates. Food and Agriculture spectrum Editorial Board comprises of specialists, academicians, and agents of industry. The group of specialists from the over three key divisions gives Food and Agriculture Spectrum a chance to have an all-encompassing perspective.</em></p> <p> </p> en-US (ONKAR K. SURYAVANSHI) (Collin IT Solution) Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Anti-stress hormones: Work & Functions <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 19.5pt; margin: 0cm 0cm 18.75pt 0cm;"><span style="color: #231f20;">Hormones are chemicals produced by different glands across our body. They travel through the bloodstream, acting as messengers and play a part in many bodily processes. One of these important functions includes regulation of mood. Good mood or pleasure giving components are extensive and can be measured using 2 major factors: integrative factors/underlying factors (intellectual, biological, character and moral sub-factors) and external factors (conduct, socio-cultural, prudent, geological, life occasions and feel sub-factors). Among every integrative factor, biological homeostasis are the noteworthy indicators of pleasure. Along these lines, this report intends to consider natural factors that underlie satisfaction of good mood. Anti-Stress Hormones will take a shot at its own, through the system of adjusting hormones by means of the cerebrum's control place. Be that as it may, you have to comprehend there are numerous reasons why this instrument is out of parity, in any case. This report will further include various components that determines the good mood regulation in body and its benefits.</span></p> Shivani Ojha Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 A COMPARITIVE STUDY OF GABA (ℽ- amino butyric acid) ACTIVITIES IN DIFFERENT FOOD PRODUCTS <p><strong>ABSTRACT: </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; GABA is an amino acid, which is occur naturally or getting by some reaction carried out with the help of glutamate, GAD (enzyme) and pyridoxal phosphate (co-factor). It is an inhibitory neuro-transmitter and classified into two forms, they are GABA<sub>A </sub>&amp; GABA<sub>B.</sub> in a nervous system, it plays a main role to inhibit the neural excitability. Source for GABA is glutamate, that can be obtained from TCA cycle and naturally from some of the food products like fermented as well as germinated items. Daily intake of this is about 100-800 milligram to cure many problems like treating ADHD, reduce PMS and type-I diabetics, nervous problem etc. compare the activities of GABA rate in different food products like mushroom, fermented soybean, germinated products ( dietary seeds, brown rice, pulses, mung bean, paddy), green coffee bean and rice germ during soaking.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>GABA, GAD, nervous system, glutamate, fermented, germinated.</p> Gayathri S, Dinesh. T Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on consumer perception regarding the label declaration of allergens by E-commerce food operators <p>Adverse reaction to food is a serious nutritional problem which was earlier reflected upon only by industrialized nations but it is fast catching up with the developing nations. The diverse and unique food culture of India, has acquired its own portfolio of food allergens too. At present, there is no effective medical treatment except avoidance of allergenic foods. E-commerce food services including delivery services and online grocery portal are booming tremendously popularity due to changing lifestyle. In the lockdown period of 2020 due to COVID-19 pandemic, pre-packaged foods demand have seen the contribution of e-commerce sales uptick. However, customers with allergies and dietary restrictions oftentimes feel ‘disheartened’ from ordering takeaway food. Therefore, we conducted an online survey to gain consumer insights over various domains related to food delivery, including food ingredients,&nbsp; allergens, labeling, preferences and to&nbsp; estimate the awareness and occurrence of food related adverse reaction and food allergies in a digital population of India. However, generating precise adverse food reaction prevalence information is somewhat difficult. Throughout this report, most of the graphs represent the aggregated results of all 505 respondents, where out of total, 71 (14%) reported a certain food allergy (FA)/ food intolerance (FI) and 37 (7%) were classified as having a probable FA/ FI. The report also estimated that 15% respondents have one FA and 7% have two and multiple food allergies (FAs). Milk allergy was the most common reported FA. Food allergen labeling is a significant tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for consumers with FAs. Hence, the new regulations must prescribe the provision for labeling of food allergens. It also allows to use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols not on only packaged products but also on the online food service portals. What’s in food must be on the screen.</p> Shobhit Ambawat Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEAT PRESERVATION- A REVIEW <p>Meat is an exceptionally short-lived item because of its natural&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;synthesis.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Many interrelated variables impact the time frame of realistic usability and freshness of meat,&nbsp;&nbsp;for example,&nbsp;&nbsp;holding temperature,&nbsp;&nbsp;environmental oxygen (O2), endogenous catalysts, dampness, light and above all,&nbsp;&nbsp;realistic usability in new meat items,&nbsp;&nbsp;elective non-warm conservation innovations,&nbsp;&nbsp;for&nbsp;&nbsp;example, smaller scale living beings.&nbsp;&nbsp;With the expanded interest for top-notch,&nbsp;&nbsp;comfort,&nbsp;&nbsp;wellbeing,&nbsp;&nbsp;new appearance and an all-encompassing time frame of,&nbsp;&nbsp;high hydrostatic weight,&nbsp;&nbsp;super chilling,&nbsp;&nbsp;common bio preservatives and dynamic bundling have been proposed and researched. While a portion of these advancements is proficient at inactivating the miniaturized scale creatures most regularly identified with nourishment borne illnesses, they are not compelling against spores. To build their adequacy against vegetative cells, a mix of a few conservation innovations under the alleged obstacle idea has additionally been explored.&nbsp;&nbsp;The target of this survey is to depict current techniques and creating innovations for protecting crisp meat.</p> Dimple Chauhan, Akash Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Quality Control by Proximate Analysis of Few Wheat Based Products <p><em>There are many quality tests for wheat and wheat-based products. In this the major concentration is on moisture, ash, fat and titrable acidity of Atta, Biscuits and Bread collected from local markets and kirana stores in and around a city. The samples are tested for moisture, ash, fat and acidity and all the sample are as per the standards specified by the authorities for moisture and fat content but, biscuits and bread failed to meet the standards for ash content as per the standards specified.</em></p> Tejaswi Boyapati Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 An Egg-based coating <p><em>Every year 3% of the total egg produced is discarded by the manufacturers, but now these eggs can be made use of very creatively. This is a very inexpensive alternative which helps using the waste eggs which would otherwise end up polluting the environment. The researchers have found a new alternative to the artificial wax coatings applied on the fresh fruits and vegetables to save them from being deteriorated even before reaching the consumers or being processed. This coating provides answers to the various problems related to the health hazardous artificial coatings and chemical additives used to provide freshness to the produce. It is completely safe and does not have any side effects. Researchers are now working on developing the same kind of coating with the use of plant based proteins. </em></p> Ritu Rani Bhakat Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 THE Non-Conventional Yeast Strains involving positive impact for lowering alcohol content of wines. <p>Moderate wine consumption can be associated with specific health benefits and a healthy lifestyle. However, increased amounts of ethanol and alcohol are cytotoxic and associated with adverse health outcomes. Alcohol reduction in wine is an avenue to reduce the alcohol-related harm without forcing the consumers to compromise on their lifestyle and benefit from the positive aspects of moderate consumption. It's protected to state that liquor is both a tonic and a toxin. The distinction lies for the most part in the portion. Moderate drinking is by all accounts useful for the heart and circulatory framework, and presumably ensures against type 2 diabetes and gallstones. Substantial drinking is a significant reason for preventable passing in many nations. Drinking can harm the liver and heart, hurt an unborn youngster, The aim of this research is to give an overview of viticultural and pre and post-fermentation methods to produce low-alcohol wine.</p> Dr somesh sharma, tanu shree hissaria, manjeet singh, piyush sharma, deepanshi sharma Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Immunity booster nutrients to fight against novel COVID-19 <p><em>Nutrients play an important role for the proper functioning of immune system. Nowadays, everybody is fighting against novel coronavirus and accepted to live in new normal environment. People working on to enhance their immunity by several ways whether by taking nutritious food or by doing excercise. Suddenly, it is observed that people become conscious about their food intake and tending towards immunity booster food. This short review looks at immunity, its types (innate and adaptive), function and their respective work. Additionally, role of macronutrients as well as micronutrients in building the human immunity is also discussed. </em></p> Taru Negi, Dr. Rajender Singh Negi, Deepa Saini, Neha Rawat, Ankur Adhikari Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Nutrigenomics Impact of nutrition on gene expression <p><em>Food has the impact on our body. For evidently covering up the impact of nutrition on the medical conditions nutrigenomics is the new boon in the field of nutrition, medical science and genetics. This deals with the impact of diet on the genomics and expression of genes related to various medical conditions like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The present review gives the glimpse of nutrigenomics, genetic databases and its application in medical sciences. </em></p> NEHA RAWAT, Taru Negi, Deepa Saini Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 DEVELOPMENT OF FORTIFIED PROBIOTIC CURD INCORPORATED TO MORINGA OLEIFERA <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Moringa oliferais the highest generally cultivated species in moringaceae family and remains generally distributed in subtropical regents of the world . Unfortunately, those are the areas where most of the people suffering from malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. it is known as the "Miracle tree". Lots of researchers have found that , The effects of malnutrition’s it can combat , B-carotene and other vitamins, minerals and amino acids be situated in Moringa olifera. specially, M. olifera contain all the essential amino acids in addition to PUFAs including a-linolenic acid. Apart from the numerous nutritional properties, Moringa olifera are rich sources of phytochemicals which possess biological functions. Having strong anti-cancer and hypotensive activity and considered of medicinal properties. excellent source of B-carotene and other vitamins, minerals and amino acids that can combat the effects of malnutrition. Therefore, M. olifera&nbsp; can be processed in different ways and can be applied in food industry as a functional food ingredient.</p> <p>In current time , people of all age groups required different types of vitamin , minerals ,&nbsp; protein etc. which&nbsp; are sufficient available in moringa Dahi. Deterioration of milk-based products (dahi) is connected with changes in the environmental factors during storage. The physico-chemical properties or characteristics of the dahi are effected by the production technological parameters like incubation, process, culture addition and storage temperature and time. Dahi is one of the most popular options of all ours global liked by all age groups. It’s resole health problem and also provides enough nutrition at a low cost to a large population. An experimentation planned to monitor the durability of certain dairy products was store temperatures (-4 ◦C) within their shelf life and nutritive value. The culture added into MPP dahi sample and incubated to 38 ◦C temperature. The Samples of fortified MPP dahi tested during 22 days. During experimentation stages, depending on the product, pH and acidity value of the product, in addition to sensory analysis (taste, colour and body texture), along with microbiological safety, was investigated. The results be in view the products stored at 2◦C appeared considerable acidity (decreases pH value), changed sensory evaluation properties, and had higher no. of aerobic bacteria, after 22 days, resulted in larger amount of whey separated, decrease viscosity and decrease acidity. The physico-chemical and microbial attribute of moringa Dahi prepared by moringa pod powder and flavour A &amp; B is showed in current study. it was prepared from standardized milk. Moringa pod powder&nbsp; added at different level 0.5% , 1.00% ,1.5% of milk. Various analysis parameters were analyzed&nbsp; by one way ANOVA to obtained optimum result prepared moringa Dahi was subjected to chemical and microbial analysis to evaluate the suitability of Dahi were sample carbohydrate ( 8.98 % ) , protein ( 4.62 % ), fat ( 4.45 %), TS ( 14.58 ), acidity ( 0.67 % ) , pH ( 4. 6 ) . based on the result it was indicated&nbsp; that beneficial component of high protein is Dahi. Moringa powder made them more favorable choice for dairy technologist to develop Dahi especially for healthy food.</p> vibhuti patel Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The DEVELOPMENT AND QUALITY EVALUATION OF INSTANT ARROWROOT PAYASAM MIX <p><em>Payasam </em>is a part of authentic Kerala feast and is served as an offerings to God as a part of rituals or ceremonies. In Kerala, during the occasion of <em>Thiruvathira</em>, arrowroot <em>payasam</em> is prepared when women are abstain from consuming rice. Conventionally, Arrowroot <em>Payasam</em> is prepared by boiling arrowroot powder in coconut milk, water with the addition of jaggery and cardamom. Arrowroot is a plant which is underutilized but with many nutritional benefits apart from being a good source of starch. It possess demulcent and anti-diarrhoeal properties and is therefore used in intestinal disorders. Arrowroot has been found beneficial to pregnant women as it contain good amount of folate. Homemade food are now being replaced by instant foods which are growing in demand due to urbanization. As the number of working women is increasing the demand for such foods is on upsurge. As the demanding working times and lifestyle habits leave very little time for cooking, therefore an attempt to prepare instant mix of Arrowroot <em>Payasam</em> is undertaken through this study. For making RTC Arrowroot <em>Payasam</em> mix, the ingredients arrowroot powder, oats, coconut milk powder, jaggery, cardamom and nuts were added. Different treatments were conducted by mixing the ingredients in different amounts and sensory evaluation was done to obtain the best treatment. The highly scored treatment sample was then prepared in bulk, packed in standy pouches made up of LDPE. The samples were kept for storage and shelf life studies and analysed for physio-chemical, microbial count and sensory evaluation for 2 months. The product was found to remain in good condition for 60 days.</p> Kiran Maniprakash Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Review paper Role of Irradiation in enhancing and ensuring microbiological safety of food. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As it is said that ‘if it isn’t safe , it isn’t food’. Consumer around the world expect that ,the food they eat must be safe. With changing lifestyle and eating habits , demands of food with high nutritional value and with minimal preparation times i.e. RTE food products have been increased. Also, there is an increasing trend observed&nbsp; in many countries to centrally prepare and process fresh fruits and vegetables ,properly packaged them for distribution and marketing .In order to provide safe ,nutritionally rich and minimally processed food, the food manufacturers are looking for new and improved method of food preservations and food irradiation is one of such&nbsp; process which can be used for ensuring and enhancing food safety. Food irradiation is a process involving exposing food and agricultural commodities in pre-packed form to a specific dose of ionizing radiation inside a biologically shielded irradiation chamber .For irradiation of food; Gamma rays, X-rays and electron beams are used. Food irradiation is one of the non thermal method which can improve safety and extend shelf life of the food`</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">One of the important attributes&nbsp; of food irradiation is its destruction power against microorganisms as ionizing radiations kills microbes directly by damaging biomolecules of their cells. Gram negative pathogenic bacteria are very sensitive to irradiation .Yeast are more radio-resistant than bacteria and moulds .For inactivation of viruses, ionizing radiations must be combined with other treatments. The destruction of microorganism by irradiation is affected by many factors such as nature of processing,water activity of food ,freezing, nature and physical state of food etc. In food industry, the irradiation method are used for ensuring microbiologically safety of many food products such as minimal processed food products including blanched vegetable and fresh cut vegetables ,pre-packed chilled products ,seeds and sprouts ,meat and meat products and spices.</span></p> Yashika, Prerna Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Animosity to healthy option <p>Food is the most mishandled tranquilizer. Exercise is the most underutilized&nbsp; stimulant. Nowadays importance is given to food rather than exercise which lead to high intake than expenditure ,hence leads to obesity. Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder, which is regularly associated with many different giant sicknesses which include diabetes, high blood pressure and different cardiovascular sicknesses, osteoarthritis and positive cancers. The management of weight problems will consequently require a comprehensive variety of strategies focusing on those with current weight problems and additionally on those at excessive chance of developing weight problems. hence, prevention of obesity in the course of youth ought to be considered a priority, as there is a threat of endurance to maturity. This review paper highlights various preventive components and treatment strategies of obesity&nbsp; with special emphasis on the trendy research manifolds.&nbsp;</p> Samriti juneja, Yashika, Priyanka chauhan Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of climate change on Agriculture <p>Agriculture production is dependent on climatic and weather conditions but now-days increasing in temperature, precipitation, and CO2 concentration directly affects crop production. The CO2 concentration is rising at a rate of 1.5 to 1.8 ppm per year. Decline in rainfall of 0.7 percent and 3.0 percent in 2050, of 5.0 percent and 7.6 percent in year 2100 and 3-4 degrees Celsius temperatures are increased by the end of the 21st century should be observed in India. Increasing in 10C in temperature reduces wheat production by 4 to 5 percent. After harvesting the crop, crop residue is burned in the field that should also help in increasing the level of CO2 and kill the micro-organisms of that field. Climate change also affects an ecosystem directly or indirectly. Change in climate will affect the groundwater recharge, water cycle, soil moisture, livestock, and aquatic species. Change in climate increase the incidence of pests and diseases, which causes a huge loss in crop production. Due to climate change deterioration in soil fertility, promote salinity, defiance many pesticides, herbicides and deterioration of irrigation water quality should be found.</p> Aman Kumar Gupta, Dipak Yadav, Priyanka Gupta, Supriya Ranjan, Vishal Gupta, Sirpat Badhai Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Can chocolate be addictive? <p>Addiction term is often associated with alcohol, drugs, but currently there is also a new type of addiction that is widely debated called the food addiction. There are different types of food in the world each having its own desirable characteristic to be claimed addictive. One such type of food that is popular and explicitly craved is chocolate. This is a review of literature on consolidating the possible causes and reasons to prove whether chocolate can be as addictive as any other addictive drugs. Chocolate’s unique sensory property, its hedonic appeal and the psychoactive agents like methylxanthines, cannabinoid, like fatty acids and biogenic amines that resembles drug like effects are being explored. This review also covers the influence of gender, age groups for chocolate preference. It also validates what kind of chocolate is mostly preferred. It is relevant to say that food items we consume have an impact on our emotions. Therefore the emotional and behavioural aspects of chocolate eating and stimulation of chocolate cravings are being evaluated and what makes it to elicit drug like effects is being elucidated. The uncontrollable craving of chocolate can land into bingeing disorder or disordered eating is something being speculated and the need to be controlled is stressed. Finally, the question on the existence of chocolate addiction&nbsp; is being answered.</p> Rajeswari P Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Egg Shell Powder as an Unusual Food Ingredient for Calcium Fortification <p><em>Individuals in rural areas lack in calcium levels, and do not spend much in buying supplements, research shows that the tribal in some regions used chicken egg shell powder as a major source to fulfill the required calcium content by the body. It is a waste utilization move where the egg shells are used as a cheap and easily available source of calcium, as egg shells are a rich source of calcium. This egg shell powder can be fortified in food products by use of novel technologies like high intensity pulsed electric field, high energy milling for efficient extraction of egg shell powder.</em></p> Radhika Yadav, Sriram Modi, Aarti Tilekar Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Wed, 02 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000