Effects of climate change on Agriculture
Agriculture production is dependent on climatic and weather conditions but now-days increasing in temperature, precipitation, and CO2 concentration directly affects crop production. The CO2 concentration is rising at a rate of 1.5 to 1.8 ppm per year. Decline in rainfall of 0.7 percent and 3.0 percent in 2050, of 5.0 percent and 7.6 percent in year 2100 and 3-4 degrees Celsius temperatures are increased by the end of the 21st century should be observed in India. Increasing in 10C in temperature reduces wheat production by 4 to 5 percent. After harvesting the crop, crop residue is burned in the field that should also help in increasing the level of CO2 and kill the micro-organisms of that field. Climate change also affects an ecosystem directly or indirectly. Change in climate will affect the groundwater recharge, water cycle, soil moisture, livestock, and aquatic species. Change in climate increase the incidence of pests and diseases, which causes a huge loss in crop production. Due to climate change deterioration in soil fertility, promote salinity, defiance many pesticides, herbicides and deterioration of irrigation water quality should be found.
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