Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal <p><strong>Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal </strong>is a double-blind peer-reviewed <strong>Bi-monthly </strong>open access international journal dedicated to the promotion of research Food, Agriculture sciences, and allied fields. We define Open Access-journals as journals that use a funding model that does not charge readers or their institutions for access. The journal publishes <strong>Full Technical Reviews, Mini-Reviews,</strong> <strong>Product Information, Thesis publication in the field of Agriculture, Management, Food Technology, Food Biotechnology, Food Chemistry, Food Engineering, Nutrition, Food Safety and Security,</strong> <strong>Agriculture, AGRONOMY, HORTICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, ANIMAL SCIENCE, AGRIBUSINESS MANAGEMENT, FARM MANAGEMENT, AGRICULTURE AND CONSUMER PROTECTION, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY, FOOD CHEMISTRY, BIOTECHNOLOGY, FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, FOOD ENGINEERING &amp; PROCESSING, SENSORY ANALYSIS</strong></p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Data Preservation</strong></p> <p>FASJ Preserve data content with Hard Disks by our Secured Data storage systems.</p> <p><strong>Why Publish with FASJ</strong></p> <ul> <li>Author retains copyright</li> <li>Prompt Email Notification</li> <li>Originality and Innovation</li> <li>Effective Editorial Standards</li> <li>Excellent Peer Review Process</li> <li>Check manuscript status online</li> <li>International Quality and Standards</li> <li>Fast and efficient online submission</li> <li>Issue of the E-Certificate for each published paper</li> <li>Online Journal</li> <li>Referred Journal</li> <li>Open Access</li> <li>Peer-Reviewed Journal</li> </ul> Food and Agriculture Spectum en-US Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal Applications of Nanotechnology in Fruits and Vegetables <p>Nanotechnology is one of the emerging technique of preservation not only in food industry but in other fields we are aware of Various new and innovative applications about nanotechnology and nanoscience has been developed in the food industry.Those applications are utilized for food sector, agriculture , horticulture, food science namely food production, food processing, nano-packaging, nanosensors and fruits and vegetable packaging. Due to the perishable natures, fruits and vegetables can not be stored in natural conditions for long period of time. Conventional methods are also applicable for preserving fruits and vegetables but because of few limitations like high cost, unsatisfactory results, or poor shelf life improvement are not preferred. Nanotechnology has not reported any harmful effects till now hence it can be effectively utilized in the food industry. Also, the shelf life of fruits and vegetables can be effectively improved by utilization of nanotechnology. Providing safe and sufficient food to the customers, reducing the post harvest wastages and the losses during production has became the native aim of food manufacturers. To reduce the losses and wastages is the major challenge before food industries which has a best solution named nanotechnology or nano-packaging. Nanomaterials are the core of the nanotechnology . Nanomaterials plays an important role in food preservation due to its unique characteristic of developing enamerous ability to increase the physical properties of the food as well as packaging materials. Nanopacking or nano-packaging is useful for lowering the relative humidity, oxygen transmission rate and water vapor transmission rate. Hence, it consequently improves the shelf life of the product. This review gives the idea about overall scope and demand of nanotechnology in the packaging sector to improve shelf lives of the products and liase for safety and quality of the food products.</p> Srushtee Kadam Bhusare Shubhangi Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152975 Black Rice the New black gold of India <p>Rice is the most common food in the world since time immemorial. outer layer of rice kernel contains anthocyanin pigment in them which is responsible for the colour of rice bran. Pigmented rice variety are admired all over the world and have history of Heritage. black rice is a nutrient rich variety of rice which is mainly cultivated in Asian countries. Black rice has been involved in the field of medicine other than cooking and fodder for cattle. It contains high nutrient value and beneficial amino acids like lysine and tryptophan in it which possesses lots of health benefits . other than benefits black rice cultivation provides path of entrepreneurship to many farmers . Black rice cultivation can generate great employment opportunities and producer can earn profit from the sale of black rice . The theme of this paper is to provide information regarding nutrient contents , its production in the world and to let you know the benefits of black rice on health , including phytochemical profile of it , techniques and methods of its cultivation followed by its demand in market and profit margin from its sales in market .</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4153213 MILK PROTEINS: AN OVERVIEW <p>Processing milk into dairy products leaves a large portion of milk protein, which can be used in many ways. Milk protein is composed of casein and whey protein. Casein is predominate bovine milk protein, which forms large colloidal particles and present in the form of casein micelles. Whey is liquid by products in chess manufacturing or liquid obtained from remove fat and casein from milk. Generally, protein, especially milk protein, has multiple functions in food, such as emulsification, foam formation and stability. Condensed milk protein is a high quality protein that is found naturally in the milk. These milk powders provide powerful and nutritious multifunctional nutrients for the global food and beverage industry due to their high protein content. Milk Protein also consider high quality protein and provide various nutritional benefits, which should be included into the diets. The objective of this review is to overview of milk protein and milk protein concentrates in terms of production and various application in food.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Casein, Milk Protein Concetrate, Sodium Caseinate, Whey Protein, WPI (Whey Protein Isolate), WPC (Whey Protein Concentrate)</p> Arpitkumar Hareshbhai Patel Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4149488 SENSORY AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITIES OF MULTI-GRAIN COOKIES SUPPLEMENTED WITH DIFFERENT LEVEL OF RICE BRAN <p>In this study, nutritional rich multi-grain cookies using rice bran powder has been prepared. The multi-grain flour blend including wheat, pearl millet, corn flour was supplemented with different levels of rice bran (10,20,30%) powder and used for the preparation of cookies. The physical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of prepared multi-grain cookies was analysed. From the above results, it was concluded that multigrain cookies prepared with 20% level of rice bran powder are most acceptable and got the highest score in all sensory parameters. As a result, it was concluded that the treatment (T<sub>2</sub>) supplemented with 20% rice bran powder can be successfully used for the preparation of sensory acceptable and nutritional rich multi-grain cookies.</p> Rajat Singh Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4153009 Carbonated Green Tea Infused With Spices And Fruit As An Alternative To Sugary Carbonated Drinks. <p>&nbsp;Consumption of carbonated sugary drinks which also contains caffeine is increasing extremely worldwide. Despite the drinks have been known for their health effects its famous, especially among young population. Reinventing the carbonated beverages to its healthy alternative with ingredients rich in nutraceutical properties is necessary. Our study aims to discuss the healthier alternative to the sugar sweetened beverage containg green tea as a major ingredient.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shweta Girme Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4149002 Food Toxicants Formed During Thermal Processing <p>This review paper describes about the food toxicants such as acrylamide, acrolein, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) formed in some food products, mainly protein and starch-based food products during thermal processing like roasting, baking and frying. And these toxicants are related with the development of colour, aroma, flavours which gives the overall organoleptic properties and characteristics of the food product. In this review paper we have discussed about the frequently occurring heat generated food toxicants its mechanism, adverse effects to human health, human exposure, the strategy to be held to reduce the toxicants during thermal processing and some of the food which form these toxic compounds.</p> Raja Rajeshwari Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152817 Hurdle technology <p><strong>Covid-19 has brought the world to its knees. Businesses are shut, schools and colleges are closed, traveling is banned. To conclude the world is in virtual halt. Its complete opposite is true for the food industries, which are operating day and night to meet the demand of world in isolation. </strong><strong>The spread of virus has brought countless significant changes in our lifestyle. From the drastic changes in personal hygienic practices to the boost in demand of online classes for kids to work from home. &nbsp;Thus, circuitously affecting our physical and psychological well-being. Apart from all of these changes, the food industry is also experiencing a complete shift in consumer preferences. Demand of more organic foods with better and longer shelf life have increased in these times of pandemic. Buyers uncertain of when would their next trip to grocery stores be and whether they would be able to find any food restocked, choses the food that could sit on the shelves for months without losing its nutrition value and that could also possibly limit their trip to grocery shops. The impact of the virus is very strong and made people think twice about their preferences and choices of food they consume. The dynamics of food will be changing for a reasonably long time to come. In this article we will be knowing that how combined combination of preservation techniques are gaining attention from past years and is also a novel preservation method in the time of pandemic.</strong></p> Deepali singh Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4153056 Plant-Based Seafood <p>Aqua culture around the globe is growing to meet the increasing demand for human consumption, but the human population expands to nearly 10 billion by 2050 resulting in increase in global demand for sea food that climbs to almost 30 percent by 2030 which means we are emptying the oceans of fish and destabilizing the entire ecosystem leading to extinction of various aqua species. The alternative to which is a healthy, delicious and accessible plant based seafood product. With the innovations in this industry, the consumers are provided with resource efficient seafood that tastes, cooks and looks like the conventional option. With no animals harmed in the process, without any fecal contamination, no antibiotic resistance with less or no emission of harmful gases, the plant based seafood provides the consumer with a reliable product having health benefits along with similar taste, texture and color of the seafood.</p> Radhika Yadav Sriram Modi Alfiya Shaikh Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4149063 The Medicinal value jelly <p>MV Naga Chaitanya, D Sailaja, MR Dinesh, C. Vasugi, DC Lakshmana Reddy &amp; C. Aswath, Microsatellite-based DNA fingerprinting.</p> <p> </p> <p>[2] Tkebe K, Moriik, Matsuda K, Hazeyama.T, Reproducibility and accuracy in measuring masticatory performance research and practice.</p> <p> </p> <p>[3] Eshraghi S, Seifollaha F, Antibacterial effects of royal jelly on different strains of bacteria. Iranian journal of public health.2003; 24 (4):249-52.</p> <p> </p> <p>[4] Sesta G, Persano Oddo L, Nisi F, Ricci L, Effect of artificial sugar feeding on sugar composition of royal jelly. Apiacta.</p> <p> </p> <p>[5] Waterbory JH, The Lowry method for protein quantitation, The protein protocols Hendberek 2009, 2(1):7-9.</p> <p> </p> <p>[6] Wit MDE, Bothmac, Swartp, Frey M, Hugo A, Thermal treatment, jelly processing and sensory evaluation of cactus pear fruit juice, journal of the professional association for cactus development 2014;16:2-4.</p> <p> </p> <p>[7] Oh HJ, Back JW, Lee JY, Oh YJ, Quality characteristics of jelly added with pressed kiwi (Actinida Chinese var. Halla gold) juice, Culinary science and hospitality research 2013; 19(5)112-7.</p> <p> </p> <p>[8] Usage of Re7d beet (Beta vulqaris L.) and Bosella (Hibiscus sabdarriffa. L) in jelly production</p> <p>for images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 767-782, May 2001.</p> Shodashe K.c. Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 DEVELOPMENT OF READY TO EAT FRUIT FLAKES <p>Ready to eat foods are processed to be ready to eat with very little additional efforts. The main objective of this project is to develop a cereal mix that can be used as breakfast. Ready to eat Indian Fruit Flakes was developed by using dried papaya, apple and banana flakes. Its sensory evaluation consumer acceptance test) revealed that the product was liked moderately by the consumer. The various parameters such as moisture, colour, non enzymatic browning, total sugars and reducing sugars were analysed. The Iron and Calcium content was found to be in high ratio during the analysis. The microbial load was found to be within the safe limit. Total Plate Count, Yeast and Mould were found to be within limits .Salmonella were found to be absent. T he ready to eat fruit flakes can be prepared by adding it to boiled milk with addition of sugar if needed. The development&nbsp; of RTE food without losing the traditional taste are found to be more acceptable by the present day society.</p> AKHIL PHILIP PATHEEPARAMBIL Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4149164 Antibiotic Resistance Bacteria – A Threat to Food Safety <p>The use of antibiotics and the frequency of their use to curb infectious diseases have been increasing.<br>This has resulted in the build-up of resistance in bacteria causing these diseases. The build-up of<br>resistance is a natural process and therefore extensive focused research is required with respect to<br>characteristics of a bacteria and their response to inactivation mechanism. It is also important to gain<br>information on the mechanism action of these microbes to understand how they spread the<br>resistance. The ever-growing outbreaks related to the food borne pathogens and food product recalls<br>worldwide explains the importance of controlling pathogens in food. To top it all, resistance build-up<br>in a pathogen has created new challenges for the food industry to produce safe food. This paper<br>explains mechanism of the resistant spread of bacteria, the spread of resistance of bacteria in the food<br>chain, the role of food in spreading the antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens and the control<br>measures required to prevent the antimicrobial resistance.</p> Azmina Lalani Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152965 Role of Bottle gourd extract in the formulation of Detox drink: A Review on Nutritional status, Health benefits and its Utilization <p><em>Calabash, also known as Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), long melon or white flowered gourd belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and is native to tropical Africa but cultivated around the warm climates in globe. It possess high amounts of water content, minerals, vitamins, lipids, amino acids and also present in abundant amounts of fiber which aids in effective weight loss. It has been reported to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant properties. Fresh bottle gourd juice can be used as a main constituent in the formulation of detox drink which helps to treat different diseases such as diabetes, urinary problems, hyperlipidemia, depression and cardiovascular disorders. The main objective of this Study is to explore the various aspects of Bottle gourd juice and different constituents in terms of its nutritional composition, health benefits and utilization to draw the attention of researchers as well as industrialists.</em></p> Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 Sugar- The Sweet Silent Killer <p>Sugar being a basic ingredient in almost all food culture, from ancient times till date performs various technological functions in food. It also has a significant role in our body. Sugar is a carbohydrate which has sweet taste.&nbsp; Also, a rapid and easy fuel for body to use. However, sugar consumption can implicate similar responses as consumption of drug of abuse. Sugar imbalance can result in sweet craving. It is important to eat sugar but if it is over consumed then it can be one of the reasons for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. It has also negative implications on body and brain. The reason behind over consumption of sugar is whenever sugar or sugary products are consumed by our body the reward system of our brain get activated due to which the individual feels better. Replacing or removing will alter the characteristic such as texture, taste, appearance of a food. For this, sugar substitutes can be the way to compensate will the reformulation giving the exact desired product. This review is focused on ‘sugar’ a term that simply mean sucrose and combined term for glucose, fructose and galactose. Aims on sugar and its potential impact on health on human health. Also, addiction of sugar, which is a controversial issue.</p> Aarya Telgar Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4149310 A Study on Generation of Fruit Waste Among Selected Fruit Juice Outlets in Pune City and Development of Candied Orange Peel <p>Fruit waste like peel, core, seed, pomace and epicarp is considered as a crucial component of our daily food intake as it contains many important nutrients and non-nutrient components, which play an important role in our well-being. The main objective of this dissertation study was to conduct a survey among fruit juice outlets and vendors to assess the fruit waste generated. About 53 fruit juice outlets in Pune Metro City were selected for the study. <em>Mosambi</em>, orange, pineapple, mango, apple, and watermelon were the most popular fruit juices consumed and were available at most of the outlets surveyed. The total fruit peel waste generated was approximately 1300 kg per day. This fruit peel waste was majorly found to be collected by the Pune Municipal Cooperation (85%), some of it was thrown away (11%) and only 4% of it was utilized for animal feed. Out of the total fruit peel waste, 8% of it was orange peels. This part contains natural antioxidants, bio- active compounds, phytochemicals, fibre, polyphenols, flavonoids, and also possesses antimicrobial activity, which can be used for the development of value-added products. Therefore, as a feasible solution to this waste problem, a reasonable technology for value addition of orange peel into sugar impregnated candied orange peels was developed (Osmo-dehydration in a hypertonic solution). The final candied orange peel had 10.27% moisture, 70.4˚B TSS, 34.61 mg/100g ascorbic acid (vitamin C), 0.27% acidity (citric acid), 16.24% reducing sugars, 70.4% total sugars, 5.25% fat, 6.10% protein, 6.80% fibre, 74.5% carbohydrates, 4.2% ash (minerals) and energy value 368 Kcal/100 gram. Microbiologically, the candied orange peel did not show any significant growth in terms of total plate count. Likewise, the sensory quality attributes (colour, consistency (texture), flavour, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability), when evaluated by a panel of 20 semi trained members using 5 point hedonic scale, were found to be ranked at the highest rank- I, (means of mean). Even after storing for 40 days the product had exhibited no significant differences (p&lt;0.05) in the quality parameter values as observed on 0<sup>th</sup> day analysis to that of the 40<sup>th</sup> day storage sample.</p> Ramona Simon S.M Naikare Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152995 Nutraceuticals: Let Food be your Medicine. <p>With the evolution in science and technology followed by the changing lifestyle of individuals the demand for products possessing some medicinal and nutritional value has also been increased.&nbsp; The involvement of nutrients in the form of medicines in the human diet has shown promising results and attracted the attention of scientists globally. A nutraceutical can be defined as a food or its part that has the potential of providing certain health-related or medical benefits including avoidance of disease. The discovery and history have investigated several aspects of noticeably profound medicinal values of such products. Such products range from dietary supplements, nutritional supplements, and herbals to fortified and recombinant nutraceuticals. As per the estimate of WHO, near about 80% of the global population currently uses herbal medicines for some aspect of primary health care. These are the alternative to modern medicines and also provide a healthy living. Studies have revealed the promising results for these compounds in various compilations hence, the present review deals with the definition, history, classification, and certain health-related benefits of different nutraceutical compounds.</p> Pooja Bhatnagar Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4148919 BIOSENSORS: Introduction and its Applications <p><em>Biosensor is one of the powerful and innovative technology used in the number of fields. It is a device which converts the biological response to the electrical signals. Various chemical substances are detected by using biosensors. It is used to monitor the presence of products, enzymes, by-products etc. It is effectively applicable in the field of agriculture as well as food science and technology and many other fields like food safety, defense, environmental monitoring, biomedical etc. Different types of biosensors are there for the target detection. Various types of biosensors being used such as enzyme-based biosensors, thermal biosensors, electro chemical biosensors and so on. Hence, specific biosensors are available to detect specific target substances. Maintaining quality of the food has become the major concern in food industry. The quality of food is mostly depending on microbial load. Hence, microbial biosensors are used in food industry to detect the presence of microorganisms and also different chemical compounds like methane and ammonia. Biosensors monitor the process of food products and maintain its quality throughout the process. In the field of agriculture, biosensors play a vital role by reducing the wastage of crops during harvesting and post harvesting. Pesticides also can be detected by using microbial biosensors have a wide scope in food packaging. The different sensors such as temperature sensors, leakage sensors are utilized during smart packaging which helps to maintain the food quality until it reaches to the consumer.&nbsp; It is utilized in smart packaging to keep the freshness and quality of food products. Nanosensors also have a huge scope in food packaging because it is helpful in determination of contaminants, microorganisms, and pollutants to achieve the freshness of the food products. Hence, biosensors have a wide scope in the field of agriculture as well as food safety and quality. Biosensor is an emerging technique in the field of food safety and standards. </em></p> Kadam Srushtee Paimode Sujata Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152601 Progression of plant -based nourishment <p>Opting vegetarianism can save millions of animals which in turn will help our environment to grow efficiently. Plants have now become a boon to the food industries. They are a lead for us to make our future lifestyle healthier There are many disadvantages of consuming meat extracted from animals. It poses a major influence on our surroundings. Livestock slaughtering is one of the reasons for greenhouse emissions. On the other hand, meat alternatives are more ecologically approachable. Though the invention of meat alternatives is somewhat complicated and costly but it does not affect our surroundings. A large number of meat alternative producers are advancing to transform their invention. By generating competences, the food manufacturing corporations are looking forward to serve more and more customers. Mainly extrusion techniques are used for producing the plant -based meats. The flavour, texture and appearance play an important role in the food.&nbsp; Various innovations are done for replicating the taste, texture and quality of meat. The chief ingredients of the plant- based meats are proteins and fats. The Americans and the Europeans have started shifting towards the plant-based meats but Indians have just taken an initiative to develop plant- based meats. India being a developing country would require many more years to completely shift from animal meat to plant -based meat. These new developments of inventing plant-based meats will also have an enormous influence on the GDP growth of our country.</p> Samriti Juneja Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4153030 Development of Organic Fertilizer and Compost Bin for Home Gardening <p><em>India is the second largest manufacturer of fruits and vegetables within the world that amounts to 15 percent of the world’s produce. The Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering and Technology (CIPHET) Ludhiana, estimated that about 18 percent of the produce is wasted due to poor management. These fruit and vegetable wastes contain significant amount of bio-active compounds that are dumped into the landfills. The aim of this study is to make composting easier that is suitable for households, where mitigation of these fruits and vegetable wastes can be curbed. A compost bin (Nutrition Composter) was designed keeping in thought for home composting that is easy to operate and does not attract pests, flies and odor. Alongside the Nutrition Composter, compost recipe was formulated using fruits and vegetable peels, for herbs and succulents that would provide balanced nutrition through home composting. Home composting method is the most recent strategy that reduces the amount of biodegradable wastes from being sent to the landfill sites. Many local councils in the recent years have strongly promoted home composting and recruitment which is quite significant. Utilization of nutrients from fruit and vegetable wastes have drawn a lot of attention from authors and scientist all over the globe.</em></p> Anbarasi Chetty Wap-Wai Sum Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4149012 The <p><sub>The solanum lycocarpum is wild species. It is belongs to the family of tomato. It control cholesterol in our body.</sub></p> Dhuruva Dhuruva warshini. T Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152849 HEMP- A MAGICAL PLANT <p><em>There is a plant named HEMP that has solutions to more than 1000 problems. It’s a variety of cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for industrial use. It was used to make blankets, ropes, fabric etc. even the very first paper in the world was partly made from hemp. They are great source of proteins and highly nutritious and also used for medicinal purposes. Clothes made from hemp fiber are light weight, tensile and eco-friendly. Its an excellent alternative of wood shives to make paper. It has another minifacial &nbsp;property which makes it a good building material. Hemp seeds have much more potential in them but due to confusion between marijuana and hemp people are not accepting it but once we understand difference between them it can boost national economy.</em></p> Nandini Komal Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF SOME EDIBLE FRUITS AND THEIR BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES OF AMYLASE PRODUCTION. <p>Production of microbial enzymes at the industrial scale and their commercialization has gained a lot of focus and importance. Some of the industrially important enzymes from microbial origin include Lipase, Amylase, Proteases, Xylanases, Pectinases. The current work involves the use of fungi isolated from the decaying fruit for extraction of amylase. The organism were isolated from decayed fruit were cultured in modified CZ agar (soluble starch used instead of sucrose) plate as the isolation of fungi. The organisms were screened for the production of amylase using modified CZ media. Microscopic identification, isolation and morphology study revealed that the fungi isolated were <em>Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger,</em> Unidentified fungal fruit rotter, <em>Aspergillus candidus, A. flavus. </em>Qualitative estimation and quantitative estimation of amylase were done. The results they obtained can conclude that the use of <em>Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger</em> and Unidentified fungul fruit rotter are highly beneficial for the production of amylase.</p> Manisha Mandal Subrata Mitra Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152899 AN IDEAL STRATEGY OF USING NELUMBO NUCIFERA FOR MOISTURIZING SERUM <p>The Nelumbo Nucifera, also known as the Padma, sacred lotus, or Indian lotus belongs to the family Nelumbonaceae. It naturally contains fatty acid (linoleic acid) which helps keep the skin moisturized and nourished. The hydrosol obtained by the distillation process, from the entire flower ( petals, plumule, and seed) combined with glycerin to form the serum, glycerin enhances the desired texture of the serum. some preservative is used to increase the shelf life. This serum is applicable for both males and females and children too. It gives glow as well as hydrated skin and this serum has fascinating odor. The organoleptic test is taken to analyze the texture, odor, color, whereas the pH scale is used to determine the acidic nature of the serum and the rancidity test is used to determine how long it would exist without spoilage, solubility test is taken for analyzing the dissolution and Specific gravity test is taken to analyze the density of the serum.</p> M Abitha Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-11-06 2020-11-06 1 4 Preparation of wheat grass incorporated biscuits <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Wheat grass was taken as key ingredient for preparation of value-added biscuits. When value addition is performed in any existing product or entirely new product is developed. This process called New product development.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Objective-To prepare nutritional rich biscuits using wheat grass</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Method- Firstly wheat grass was harvested, cleaned, washed and dried at 40°C for eight hours and then crushed properly transferring them to mixer to convert into powder form. The powder was then mixed at 10%,7%,5%,3%,2% (respectively named as T1,T2,T3,T4,T5)to the wheat flour that was used for biscuit preparation.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">On the performance of sensory evaluation, it was found that 3%T3 that is sample with combination (70:30) was most acceptable to panel having a mean overall acceptability score of 4.40.The acceptability of wheat grass biscuits decreased with increase in concentration of wheat grass incorporated. Hence sample with combination 70:30 was most favorable.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The biscuit samples were then kept in air tight bags in room temperature and studied for shelf life for 6 months.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Result-The product on storage had no microbial growth and sensory score was within acceptable range</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Conclusion-Prepared product is novel, nutritious and herbal based confectionery.</span></p> ANUSHKA PALLAVI Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-11-12 2020-11-12 1 4 Standardization of recipe for nutraceutical dark chocolate bar with added moringa and quinoa. <p><strong><em>The purpose of this research project is to develop a nutraceutical, chocolate based confectionary product which will provide benefits other than that of traditional chocolate. We felt like there is a need to produce some innovative confection other than traditional chocolates. The nutraceutical chocolate bar which we have manufactured is more nutritious and healthy due to its rare ingredients which also makes it a unique nutraceutical chocolate bar. The raw materials required for the preparation of this bar like moringa and quinoa along with fruits like kiwi, pineapple, apricots and nuts like almonds, cashew nuts, peanuts and desiccated coconut are procured from market. For the standardization of formulation, 4 test samples were prepared of different proportions of raw materials, among which the T4 was selected by sensory panelist based on organoleptic evaluation.&nbsp;The bar is further packed into the aluminum foil wrappers. The approximate nutritional values obtained by analysis are particularly as, Protein 5.19 gm, Fat 29.15 gm, Carbohydrate 37.28 gm Fiber 22.8 gm. The storage conditions are studied at variable temperature conditions and recommended to be as below 20<sup>0</sup>C in cool, dark and dry place. The well packed bars were studies for the duration of 3 month to determine its shelf life.</em></strong></p> ROHAN RAMESH SHAH Copyright (c) 2020 Food and Agriculture Spectrum Journal 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 1 4 10.5281/zenodo.4152877